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Manual or computer-generated visualizations tools may be mapped from the data, including network charts. Link analysis focuses on analysis of relationships among nodes through visualization methods network charts , association matrix.

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Here is an example of the relationships that may be mapped for crime investigations: [3]. Link analysis is used for 3 primary purposes: [4]. Klerks categorized link analysis tools into 3 generations. This method requires extensive domain knowledge and is extremely time-consuming when reviewing vast amounts of data.

In addition to the association matrix, the activities matrix can be used to produce actionable information, which has practical value and use to law-enforcement. The activities matrix, as the term might imply, centers on the actions and activities of people with respect to locations.

Intrusion Detection System Based on Fuzzy Association Rule with Genetic Network Programming

The distinction between these two types of matrices, while minor, is nonetheless significant in terms of the output of the analysis completed or rendered. These tools offer the ability to automate the construction and updates of the link chart once an association matrix is manually created, however, analysis of the resulting charts and graphs still requires an expert with extensive domain knowledge. The third generation of link-analysis tools like DataWalk allow the automatic visualization of linkages between elements in a data set, that can then serve as the canvas for further exploration or manual updates.

With the vast amounts of data and information that are stored electronically, users are confronted with multiple unrelated sources of information available for analysis. Data analysis techniques are required to make effective and efficient use of the data. Palshikar classifies data analysis techniques into two categories — statistical models , time-series analysis , clustering and classification , matching algorithms to detect anomalies and artificial intelligence AI techniques data mining, expert systems , pattern recognition , machine learning techniques , neural networks.

Unsupervised learning methods review data in comparison to the norm and detect statistical outliers.

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Supervised learning methods are limited in the scenarios that can be handled as this method requires that training rules are established based on previous patterns. Unsupervised learning methods can provide detection of broader issues, however, may result in a higher false-positive ratio if the behavioral norm is not well established or understood. Data itself has inherent issues including integrity or lack of and continuous changes.

Once data is transformed into a usable format, open texture and cross referencing issues may arise. Open texture was defined by Waismann as the unavoidable uncertainty in meaning when empirical terms are used in different contexts. The primary method for resolving data analysis issues is reliance on domain knowledge from an expert. This is a very time-consuming and costly method of conducting link analysis and has inherent problems of its own.

McGrath et al.

Mining fuzzy association rules in a bank-account database - IEEE Journals & Magazine

Link analysis techniques have primarily been used for prosecution, as it is far easier to review historical data for patterns than it is to attempt to predict future actions. Krebs demonstrated the use of an association matrix and link chart of the terrorist network associated with the 19 hijackers responsible for the September 11th attacks by mapping publicly available details made available following the attacks. Alternatively, Picarelli argued that use of link analysis techniques could have been used to identify and potentially prevent illicit activities within the Aum Shinrikyo network.

Being linked to a terrorist does not prove guilt — but it does invite investigation. There are four categories of proposed link analysis solutions: [21]. Heuristic-based tools utilize decision rules that are distilled from expert knowledge using structured data.

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Template-based tools employ Natural Language Processing NLP to extract details from unstructured data that are matched to pre-defined templates. Similarity-based approaches use weighted scoring to compare attributes and identify potential links.

Fuzzy sets have been widely applied in data mining and machine learning, leading to fuzzy data mining. This term can be understood in two different ways. Either the datasets are fuzzy or the mining itself, the model building, is fuzzy. Instead, every observation comes with a membership value. Subsequently the fuzzy data can be analysed with extended versions of standard data mining techniques or the analyses can be carried out in fuzzy spaces. The second approach to fuzzy data mining is to employ the principle of fuzziness in the model building itself.

Various application exist and we will discuss a few. Fuzzy frameworks are abstract mathematical entities which have been successfully applied in various data mining applications. It is an active field of research in machine learning and AI since fuzzy sets gives a more representative description of the world we live in, where not everything is either black or white.

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Bart Baesens Prof. Clustering : k -means clustering is a common unsupervised data mining technique. This method assigns each observation to one of the predefined k clusters which has the closest mean. Thus, each instance of the dataset belongs to only one cluster and there are crisp boundaries between them. In fuzzy clustering, an observation can belong to many clusters, to a certain extent. This partial belonging is described with the membership function.

Rule-Based Systems : Systems which store and manipulate knowledge in order to interpret information in a useful way are called rule-based systems.

These are, for example, expert systems which can be used by doctors to assist in disease diagnosis. In order to accurately represent the knowledge, fuzziness is introduced in the model and the induction mechanism. Decision Trees : Decision trees are frequently used for building predictive models. When training the models, splitting in inner nodes is usually based on strict rules, i. Changing the boundaries can affect the final model greatly, which leads to unstable solutions.

Applying fuzzy sets in this case allows for more flexibility. Instead of using an absolute value, it is possible to make the split based on a fuzzy set. As a result, an instance can belong to more than one terminal node. Association Rules : The mining of association rules comprises discovering relations between variables in a data set.

A well known example of association rules is the mining of frequent item sets, i.